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Lyon's looms before Jacquard

 

Jean Le Calabrais's loom

The first draw loom that entered in France by 1470, and at first in Tours under Louis XI, then in Lyon a little later, was a loom coming from Italy. One calls it also "loom with button" because the ties up allowing raising warp yarns were ended by buttons or wooden levers. On this loom, one could weave only small drawings, due to the restrictive number of buttons.

Claude Dangon's loom

To remedy this inconvenience and to allow the weaving of drawings of big size, Claude Dangon, silk worker, invented in 1620 a loom called "à grande tire" which contained 2400 ropes instead of 800. This loom takes from the precedent the tail cords and the pulley box but the selvaging ropes are replaced by a "simple" (perhaps a corruption of the french name "semple"), lashes and briddles. This system requires the presence of two persons, one to pull the briddles, the other one to weave. This is the loom which will be the most used in Lyon during a century and a half, until the adjusting of Philippe de Lasalle's loom.

Galantier and Blache's loom

In 1687, Galantier and Blache invents a loom called "petite tire" which takes the principle of Jean le Calabrais's loom, but in bringing some improvements. The buttons, instead of being arranged in front of the weaver and activated by him, are placed the sides of the loom. This new disposal allows the use of a worker pulling the briddles.

Basile Bouchon's loom

In 1725, Basile Bouchon uses for the first time on a loom, the drilled paper. This one cancels the complexity of the simple, ropes, lashes and briddles. This system arranged and modified by Falcon will be at the origine of the Jacquard mechanics loom. The role of the worker pulling the briddles here consists only in unwinding the paper by pressing it against needles. One calls him "the needles pusher". In spite of the advantages, Basile Bouchon's loom had not a lot of success. The number of needles was not enough to allow the weaving of large drawings.

Falcon's loom

By 1728, Falcon took this invention to modify and to improve it. It arranged several rows of needles and hooks instead of only one and replaced the paper by cardboard rectangles laced together.

Vaucanson's loom

It is in 1744 that Vaucansson imagined for the first time a system which would cancel the worker pulling the briddles. He put the mechanics at the top of the loom and connected it with an unique pedal, placed under the weaver. But he was wrong when he abandoned the Falcon's system of the unlimited warp of drilled cardboard's in replacing them by a cylinder covered with a paper strip. Vaucansson's invention had not more in succession that the previous ones and felt in the neglect. But it is certain that it will show the way to Jacquard loom, as well as the Falcon loom.

 

Ponson's loom

In 1775, Ponson imagined a loom said "with hooking" that would allow to weave alternately two patterns by simple handling of two ropes, and without the worker has to leave his seat.

Philippe de Lasalle's loom

The same year, Philippe de Lasalle presented his loom "à grande tire" who brought huge improvements to the traditional "à la tire" loom. Creator of fabrics with jacquard figured, he needed to realise patterns of large dimensions. It made independent and interchangeable (??the semple??), which allowed him to realise patterns of large expanse by replacing several simples one after the other.

Verzier's loom

In 1798, Verzier invented a loom said with "ligatures", one of the last inventions made before the mechanics Jacquard that will revolutionise the weaving industry in the XIX-th century.

Two years later, we will be in 19-th century...

From the very early years of this century, mechanics Jacquard loom will be finalised and will remain used until our days in its original version or in its versions declined by Vincenzi and Verdol.

Today, it is the reign of the "computarize Jacquard" piloted with software...