Description and advantages
There are many advantages in sectional warping. In "Chain Warping" one winds one or several warp yarns at a time on a warping board or reel, measuring off the warp length, then repeating this measuring of a few threads at a time for all the warps to be used. One winds the total number of warps desired on the frame, then chains off the entire group so as to distribute them across a smooth warp roller and wind them around this, a process known as "beaming".
In the sectional warp method, one figures how many warps are needed for each section of the warp roller. This is divided off into 2-in. sections, sometimes 1-in. sections. Having figured what is needed, such as 48 warps for a stting of 24 ends per in., one threads a "creel" with this many threads, then winds this 2-in unit on one section of the warp roller at a time. After each section is finished, one makes a "cross" of the warps with a heavy cord, or pastes a tape across the warp ends to preserve the order in which they were wound. Both methods of warping are used. The chain method is excellent when winding short warps with a heavy cord or when designing fabrics. Below we list the advantages of the sectional method.
1- There is absolute assurance when threading that each warp will lie in its planned space with no crossing of threads or subsequent tangles. The warps are held in a definte cross, and this position is kept all along the warp, even when wound on the roller. One finds it easy to thread with no question as to "next thread".
2- All the warps have the same tension and the warp has a smooth, even appearance. A smooth, even warp makes for better cloth and prevents any trouble resulting from threads at various tensions, some loose, some taut. The selvage threads also keep the same tension as the main part of the warp.
3- Sectional warping provides for warps of great length, such as might prove difficult to manage by the chain method. A length of 25 yds. is the practical maximum usually attempted on a smooth roller, for chain warps must be wound by hand, and beamed by hand by one person while a second person must pull the warp taut and try.
4- The sectional method is also an efficient, fast method, saving hours of time and patience, while one must stretch out a warp of uneven tensions, to perfect the total width of a chain warp. In the sectional method, one turns the cranks of the warp roller while the warp flows on from the creel. One can put on 50 yds. at a time, finishing a 16-in. warp in 1 hr. We taught two blind students this method, and they handled both their creel and loom alone, outting on 110 yds. off carpet warp in 3 hours. This means that the loom is ready for threading with a "one-and-one" shed at the end of that time. It would take 3 hrs. or more just for the winding of such a warp, and it would still have to be beamed on the loom. More than a day would be required tu put such a long warp on a loom.
5- If planning warp stripes or plaids, one can thread the creel for a 2-inch repeat using this for each section, or a single section at any point. If a 4-in. stripe is desired, one reverses the lease reed, which reverses the order of colors when necessary. One is not handicapped in any way by doing striped warps. One can add any number of colored or textured threads at any point in the warp, by add a spool to the creel at this point. The accent thread is wound on with the othres.
6- Smaller spools of thread are used for the sectional method. Many thread companies now offer warp yarns on 2- or 4-ounce spools. One needs only as many spools as the number of threads planned for each 2 in. of warp. If one does not wish to buy the separatate spools fir the creel shown here, one can use a large cone of thread and wind off one's own spools.
THE CONSTRUCTION OD WARPING CREELS
Choose a type of creel where there is a certain amount of tension on the spools as they are wound. A creel with horizontal bars on which the spools revolve is not satisfactory unless there is a tensioner connected with it, in which case it forms efficient equipment. On the creel shown here, the spools are placed vertically on a frame, and as the warp threads are drawn from the spools they provide necessary tension. Most creels are planned to hold enough threads for 2 inches of warp on the warp roller, and most warp rollers are divided into 2-inch sections. If you have a loom with 1-inch sections on the warp roller, you will need only as many spools on your creel as there are threads per inch. If you have a 2- inch sectional, you will need twice as many spools as there are threads per inch, such as thirty spools for a setting of 15 per inch.
HOW TO THREAD A CREEL
Have ready as many spools as required for 2 inches weaving space. The creel shown here accomodates 10 spools per vertical column. Start with column at left as you face the creel, ant put first spool A on bottom peg. Proceed upward, next spool on next peg, etc. to the top. As you place each spool, carry its thread end to top of creel and thread through the distributor along the top, as at B, or through the special arrangement of your creel. The warp threads should be kept separate in some such way. Tie 10 threads together in back of distributor with a slip knot. Start on next vertical column, placing a spool on bottom peg, and proceeding to the top, same as 1st column. When as many spools as you require have been put on creel, you are ready to thread through lease reed or a tensioner.
TO THREAD A LEASE REED OT TENSIONER.
Each loom company has its own special arrangement for giving tension to the warp threads. In the method given here, there is a slot-and-hole heddle through wich the threads go, and this both provides tension and keeps the threads in perfect order, as well as providing a one-and-one shed when threading. In the lease reed shown, C, every other space is a slot and goes the complete length of the steel frame, while in between are shorter openings designated by black dots at their extremties. By threading the warps in succession as each one is taken from distributor, one is able to get a one-and-one shed by lifting and lowering the lease reed. Use a threading hook to thread. put first thread as it comes from B, through first opening of lease reed, the short hole at C. Put next thread through next opening, this time it is the long opening or slot. Continue alternating thus all across. One can procure lease reeds of certain dentages, such as 15, which will serve both for 1 thread per opening, or for 2 threads, for a 30 per inch setting. In this case one thread two adjacent warps through 1st hole, next 2 warps through the slot, next 2 through a hole, etc. With a 12-dent lease reed, one can thread for a 24 per inch setting. The pairs of warps never cross and in threading them, one can take either thread of the pair. One can see at a glance that it would also be possible to thread 2 threads in a hole, 1 in a slot, etc. all the way across the reed thus giving a setting of 18 per inch in a 12-dent lease reed. The warp never cross.
WARPING A SECTION OF WARP ROLLER.
Decide how many 2-inch sections of warp you whish, such as 6 sections for a 12-inc warp, etc. Plan the beaming so that the warp will come at center of roller. Tie the warps as they come in a group from lease reed onto tape of cord of 1st section, as at D, being sure that warps come over back beam, see G. Slip lease reed into holder at the back of loom,- a groove as shown here, but could also be clamped on, see E. Now crank with warp roller handle as many rounds of roller as will give you your length. Measure circumference of warp roller before starting, and figure accordingly, allowing 20% or more added yardage fot build up of warp on each 2-inch section. Turn as at F. FORMING A CROSS. At the end of this 2-inch section, have ready a heavy soft yarn, 15" long; cut as many of these as there are warp sections. Drop the lease reed, G, insert heavy yarn into opening, as shown; lift reed and insert yarn into 2nd part of cross, H, bringing it back to meet first end and tying in a slip knot. Turn roller once around to give added length of warp for the threading. Cut warps, I, fasten warped end to a peg, J, on the side away from next section, so as not to interfere with free flow of warp. Do all sections the same, then loosen warp ends from pegs, tie ends so as not to have lease rods slip through; replace heavy yarn with the two lease rods, as shown at K.